linux各文件夹的作用

linux下的文件结构,看看每个文件夹都是干吗用的
/bin 二进制可执行命令
/dev 设备特殊文件
/etc 系统管理和配置文件
/etc/rc.d 启动的配置文件和脚本
/home 用户主目录的基点,比如用户user的主目录就是/home/user,可以用~user表示
/lib 标准程序设计库,又叫动态链接共享库,作用类似windows里的.dll文件
/sbin 系统管理命令,这里存放的是系统管理员使用的管理程序
/tmp 公用的临时文件存储点
/root 系统管理员的主目录(呵呵,特权阶级)
/mnt 系统提供这个目录是让用户临时挂载其他的文件系统。
/lost+found 这个目录平时是空的,系统非正常关机而留下“无家可归”的文件(windows下叫什么.chk)就在这里
/proc 虚拟的目录,是系统内存的映射。可直接访问这个目录来获取系统信息。
/var 某些大文件的溢出区,比方说各种服务的日志文件
/usr 最庞大的目录,要用到的应用程序和文件几乎都在这个目录。其中包含:
/usr/x11r6 存放x window的目录
/usr/bin 众多的应用程序
/usr/sbin 超级用户的一些管理程序
/usr/doc linux文档
/usr/include linux下开发和编译应用程序所需要的头文件
/usr/lib 常用的动态链接库和软件包的配置文件
/usr/man 帮助文档
/usr/src 源代码,linux内核的源代码就放在/usr/src/linux里
/usr/local/bin 本地增加的命令
/usr/local/lib 本地增加的库

通常情况下,根文件系统所占空间一般应该比较小,因为其中的绝大部分文件都不需要
经常改动,而且包括严格的文件和一个小的不经常改变的文件系统不容易损坏。
除了可能的一个叫/ v m l i n u z标准的系统引导映像之外,根目录一般不含任何文件。所有
其他文件在根文件系统的子目录中。
1. /bin目录
/ b i n目录包含了引导启动所需的命令或普通用户可能用的命令(可能在引导启动后)。这些
命令都是二进制文件的可执行程序( b i n是b i n a r y - -二进制的简称),多是系统中重要的系统文件。
2. /sbin目录
/ s b i n目录类似/bin ,也用于存储二进制文件。因为其中的大部分文件多是系统管理员使
用的基本的系统程序,所以虽然普通用户必要且允许时可以使用,但一般不给普通用户使用。
3. /etc目录
/ e t c目录存放着各种系统配置文件,其中包括了用户信息文件/ e t c / p a s s w d,系统初始化文
件/ e t c / r c等。l i n u x正是*这些文件才得以正常地运行。
4. /root目录
/root 目录是超级用户的目录。
5. /lib目录
/ l i b目录是根文件系统上的程序所需的共享库,存放了根文件系统程序运行所需的共享文
件。这些文件包含了可被许多程序共享的代码,以避免每个程序都包含有相同的子程序的副
本,故可以使得可执行文件变得更小,节省空间。
6. /lib/modules 目录
/lib/modules 目录包含系统核心可加载各种模块,尤其是那些在恢复损坏的系统时重新引
导系统所需的模块(例如网络和文件系统驱动)。
7. /dev目录
/ d e v目录存放了设备文件,即设备驱动程序,用户通过这些文件访问外部设备。比如,用
户可以通过访问/ d e v / m o u s e来访问鼠标的输入,就像访问其他文件一样。
8. /tmp目录
/tmp 目录存放程序在运行时产生的信息和数据。但在引导启动后,运行的程序最好使用
/ v a r / t m p来代替/tmp ,因为前者可能拥有一个更大的磁盘空间。
9. /boot目录
/ b o o t目录存放引导加载器(bootstrap loader)使用的文件,如l i l o,核心映像也经常放在这里,
而不是放在根目录中。但是如果有许多核心映像,这个目录就可能变得很大,这时使用单独的
文件系统会更好一些。还有一点要注意的是,要确保核心映像必须在i d e硬盘的前1 0 2 4柱面内。
10. /mnt目录
/ m n t目录是系统管理员临时安装( m o u n t )文件系统的安装点。程序并不自动支持安装到
/mnt 。/mnt 下面可以分为许多子目录,例如/mnt/dosa 可能是使用m s d o s文件系统的软驱,
而/mnt/exta 可能是使用e x t 2文件系统的软驱,/mnt/cdrom 光驱等等。
11. /proc, /usr,/var,/home目录
其他文件系统的安装点。

下面详细介绍;

/etc文件系统
/etc 目录包含各种系统配置文件,下面说明其中的一些。其他的你应该知道它们属于哪个
程序,并阅读该程序的m a n页。许多网络配置文件也在/etc 中。
1. /etc/rc或/etc/rc.d或/etc/rc?.d
启动、或改变运行级时运行的脚本或脚本的目录。
2. /etc/passwd
用户数据库,其中的域给出了用户名、真实姓名、用户起始目录、加密口令和用户的其
他信息。
3. /etc/fdprm
软盘参数表,用以说明不同的软盘格式。可用setfdprm 进行设置。更多的信息见s e t f d p r m
的帮助页。
4. /etc/fstab
指定启动时需要自动安装的文件系统列表。也包括用swapon -a启用的s w a p区的信息。
5. /etc/group
类似/etc/passwd ,但说明的不是用户信息而是组的信息。包括组的各种数据。
6. /etc/inittab
init 的配置文件。
7. /etc/issue
包括用户在登录提示符前的输出信息。通常包括系统的一段短说明或欢迎信息。具体内
容由系统管理员确定。
8. /etc/magic
“f i l e”的配置文件。包含不同文件格式的说明,“f i l e”基于它猜测文件类型。
9. /etc/motd
m o t d是message of the day的缩写,用户成功登录后自动输出。内容由系统管理员确定。
常用于通告信息,如计划关机时间的警告等。
10. /etc/mtab
当前安装的文件系统列表。由脚本( s c r i t p )初始化,并由mount 命令自动更新。当需要一
个当前安装的文件系统的列表时使用(例如df 命令)。
11. /etc/shadow
在安装了影子( s h a d o w )口令软件的系统上的影子口令文件。影子口令文件将/ e t c / p a s s w d
文件中的加密口令移动到/ e t c / s h a d o w中,而后者只对超级用户( r o o t )可读。这使破译口令更困
难,以此增加系统的安全性。
12. /etc/login.defs
l o g i n命令的配置文件。
13. /etc/printcap
类似/etc/termcap ,但针对打印机。语法不同。
14. /etc/profile 、/ e t c / c s h . l o g i n、/etc/csh.cshrc
登录或启动时b o u r n e或c shells执行的文件。这允许系统管理员为所有用户建立全局缺省环境。
15. /etc/securetty
确认安全终端,即哪个终端允许超级用户( r o o t )登录。一般只列出虚拟控制台,这样就不
可能(至少很困难)通过调制解调器( m o d e m )或网络闯入系统并得到超级用户特权。
16. /etc/shells
列出可以使用的s h e l l。chsh 命令允许用户在本文件指定范围内改变登录的s h e l l。提供一
台机器f t p服务的服务进程ftpd 检查用户s h e l l是否列在/etc/shells 文件中,如果不是,将不允
许该用户登录。
17. /etc/termcap
终端性能数据库。说明不同的终端用什么“转义序列”控制。写程序时不直接输出转义
序列(这样只能工作于特定品牌的终端),而是从/etc/termcap 中查找要做的工作的正确序列。
这样,多数的程序可以在多数终端上运行。

/dev文件系统
/dev 目录包括所有设备的设备文件。设备文件用特定的约定命名,这在设备列表中说明。
设备文件在安装时由系统产生,以后可以用/dev/makedev 描述。/ d e v / m a k e d e v.local 是
系统管理员为本地设备文件(或连接)写的描述文稿(即如一些非标准设备驱动不是标准
makedev 的一部分)。下面简要介绍/ d e v下一些常用文件。
1. /dev/console
系统控制台,也就是直接和系统连接的监视器。
2. /dev/hd
i d e硬盘驱动程序接口。如: / d e v / h d a指的是第一个硬盘, h a d 1则是指/ d e v / h d a的第一个
分区。如系统中有其他的硬盘,则依次为/ d e v / h d b、/ d e v / h d c、. . . . . .;如有多个分区则依次为
h d a 1、h d a 2 . . . . . .
3. /dev/sd
s c s i磁盘驱动程序接口。如有系统有s c s i硬盘,就不会访问/ d e v / h a d,而会访问/ d e v / s d a。
4. /dev/fd
软驱设备驱动程序。如: / d e v / f d 0指系统的第一个软盘,也就是通常所说的a:盘,
/ d e v / f d 1指第二个软盘,. . . . . .而/ d e v / f d 1 h 1 4 4 0则表示访问驱动器1中的4 . 5高密盘。
5. /dev/st
s c s i磁带驱动器驱动程序。
6. /dev/tty
提供虚拟控制台支持。如: / d e v / t t y 1指的是系统的第一个虚拟控制台, / d e v / t t y 2则是系统
的第二个虚拟控制台。
7. /dev/pty
提供远程登陆伪终端支持。在进行te l n e t登录时就要用到/ d e v / p t y设备。
8. /dev/ttys
计算机串行接口,对于d o s来说就是“ c o m 1”口。
9. /dev/cua
计算机串行接口,与调制解调器一起使用的设备。
10. /dev/null
“黑洞”,所有写入该设备的信息都将消失。例如:当想要将屏幕上的输出信息隐藏起来
时,只要将输出信息输入到/ d e v / n u l l中即可。

/usr文件系统
/usr 是个很重要的目录,通常这一文件系统很大,因为所有程序安装在这里。/usr 里的
所有文件一般来自l i n u x发行版( d i s t r i b u t i o n );本地安装的程序和其他东西在/usr/local 下,因为这样可以在升级新版系统或新发行版时无须重新安装全部程序。/usr 目录下的许多内容是
可选的,但这些功能会使用户使用系统更加有效。/ u s r可容纳许多大型的软件包和它们的配置
文件。下面列出一些重要的目录(一些不太重要的目录被省略了)。
1. /usr/x11r6
包含x wi n d o w系统的所有可执行程序、配置文件和支持文件。为简化x的开发和安装,
x的文件没有集成到系统中。x wi n d o w系统是一个功能强大的图形环境,提供了大量的图形
工具程序。用户如果对microsoft wi n d o w s或m a c h i n t o s h比较熟悉的话,就不会对x wi n d o w系统感到束手无策了。
2. /usr/x386
类似/ u s r / x 11r6 ,但是是专门给x 11 release 5的。
3. /usr/bin
集中了几乎所有用户命令,是系统的软件库。另有些命令在/bin 或/usr/local/bin 中。
4. /usr/sbin
包括了根文件系统不必要的系统管理命令,例如多数服务程序。
5. /usr/man、/ u s r / i n f o、/ u s r / d o c
这些目录包含所有手册页、g n u信息文档和各种其他文档文件。每个联机手册的“节”
都有两个子目录。例如: / u s r / m a n / m a n 1中包含联机手册第一节的源码(没有格式化的原始文
件),/ u s r / m a n / c a t 1包含第一节已格式化的内容。l联机手册分为以下九节:内部命令、系统调
用、库函数、设备、文件格式、游戏、宏软件包、系统管理和核心程序。
6. /usr/include
包含了c语言的头文件,这些文件多以. h结尾,用来描述c语言程序中用到的数据结构、
子过程和常量。为了保持一致性,这实际上应该放在/usr/lib 下,但习惯上一直沿用了这个名
字。
7. /usr/lib
包含了程序或子系统的不变的数据文件,包括一些s i t e - w i d e配置文件。名字l i b来源于库
(library); 编程的原始库也存在/usr/lib 里。当编译程序时,程序便会和其中的库进行连接。也
有许多程序把配置文件存入其中。
8. /usr/local
本地安装的软件和其他文件放在这里。这与/ u s r很相似。用户可能会在这发现一些比较大
的软件包,如t e x、e m a c s等。

/var文件系统
/var 包含系统一般运行时要改变的数据。通常这些数据所在的目录的大小是要经常变化
或扩充的。原来/ v a r目录中有些内容是在/ u s r中的,但为了保持/ u s r目录的相对稳定,就把那
些需要经常改变的目录放到/ v a r中了。每个系统是特定的,即不通过网络与其他计算机共享。
下面列出一些重要的目录(一些不太重要的目录省略了)。
1. /var/catman
包括了格式化过的帮助( m a n )页。帮助页的源文件一般存在/ u s r / m a n / m a n中;有些m a n页
可能有预格式化的版本,存在/ u s r / m a n / c a t中。而其他的m a n页在第一次看时都需要格式化,
格式化完的版本存在/var/man 中,这样其他人再看相同的页时就无须等待格式化了。
(/var/catman 经常被清除,就像清除临时目录一样。)
2. /var/lib
存放系统正常运行时要改变的文件。
3. /var/local
存放/usr/local 中安装的程序的可变数据(即系统管理员安装的程序)。注意,如果必要,
即使本地安装的程序也会使用其他/var 目录,例如/var/lock 。
4. /var/lock
锁定文件。许多程序遵循在/var/lock 中产生一个锁定文件的约定,以用来支持他们正在
使用某个特定的设备或文件。其他程序注意到这个锁定文件时,就不会再使用这个设备或文
件。
5. /var/log
各种程序的日志( l o g )文件,尤其是login (/var/log/wtmp log纪录所有到系统的登录和注
销) 和syslog (/var/log/messages 纪录存储所有核心和系统程序信息)。/var/log 里的文件经常不
确定地增长,应该定期清除。
6. /var/run
保存在下一次系统引导前有效的关于系统的信息文件。例如, /var/run/utmp 包含当前登
录的用户的信息。
7. /var/spool
放置“假脱机( s p o o l )”程序的目录,如m a i l、n e w s、打印队列和其他队列工作的目录。每
个不同的s p o o l在/var/spool 下有自己的子目录,例如,用户的邮箱就存放在/var/spool/mail 中。
8. /var/tmp
比/tmp 允许更大的或需要存在较长时间的临时文件。
注意系统管理员可能不允许/var/tmp 有很旧的文件。

/proc文件系统
/proc 文件系统是一个伪的文件系统,就是说它是一个实际上不存在的目录,因而这是一
个非常特殊的目录。它并不存在于某个磁盘上,而是由核心在内存中产生。这个目录用于提
供关于系统的信息。下面说明一些最重要的文件和目录(/proc 文件系统在proc man页中有更详
细的说明)。
1. /proc/x
关于进程x的信息目录,这一x是这一进程的标识号。每个进程在/proc 下有一个名为自
己进程号的目录。
2. /proc/cpuinfo
存放处理器( c p u )的信息,如c p u的类型、制造商、型号和性能等。
3. /proc/devices
当前运行的核心配置的设备驱动的列表。
4. /proc/dma
显示当前使用的d m a通道。
5. /proc/filesystems
核心配置的文件系统信息。
6. /proc/interrupts
显示被占用的中断信息和占用者的信息,以及被占用的数量。
7. /proc/ioports
当前使用的i / o端口。
8. /proc/kcore
系统物理内存映像。与物理内存大小完全一样,然而实际上没有占用这么多内存;它仅
仅是在程序访问它时才被创建。(注意:除非你把它拷贝到什么地方,否则/proc 下没有任何
东西占用任何磁盘空间。)
9. /proc/kmsg
核心输出的消息。也会被送到s y s l o g。
10. /proc/ksyms
核心符号表。
11. /proc/loadavg
系统“平均负载”; 3个没有意义的指示器指出系统当前的工作量。
12. /proc/meminfo
各种存储器使用信息,包括物理内存和交换分区( s w a p )。
13. /proc/modules
存放当前加载了哪些核心模块信息。
14. /proc/net
网络协议状态信息。
15. /proc/self
存放到查看/proc 的程序的进程目录的符号连接。当2个进程查看/proc 时,这将会是不同
的连接。这主要便于程序得到它自己的进程目录。
16. /proc/stat
系统的不同状态,例如,系统启动后页面发生错误的次数。
17. /proc/uptime
系统启动的时间长度。
18. /proc/version
核心版本。

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